"So the air, calling in vain with their music, they have
absorbed, like revenge, contagious darkness of the sea, which fell on the fields
have filled with so much pride to the most humble rivers, which have exceeded
their banks. "
At 01:00 hours on July 18, 2008 in the town of Tlaltenango, disturbing phenomenon that causes the overflow of the river, causing floods Atypical Xaloc, several colonies are located near the river, causing damage in 2000 housing and the total loss of household goods for families who live there.
Several roads and bridges that connect communities in the municipality has also been affected and 500 vehicles damaged. Similarly, there was the death of three persons who were washed away by the force of water that came out of its natural channel (DEPCyB, 2008).
This study arises from the need to prevent and control flooding by a new threat in the stream that crosses the Xaloc City Tlaltenango Sanchez Román, to mitigate the effects along with it as well as help in the decision-making authority in developing emergency plans.
This study will help in generating the necessary information for prevention and preparedness against flood hazards, such as personal reasons and work of the state Civil Defense in conjunction with other agencies, and know well the problems that led to flooding in the city to mitigate future damage.
Description of the study area.
The municipality of Tlaltenango Sanchez Román is located 173Km south of Zacatecas capital and 155Km north of Guadalajara, Jal. Geographically it is located at 21 ş 47 'north latitude and 103 ° 18' 44''west of the meridian at an altitude above sea level to 1723 m.
Tlaltenango is a town with a large mountain chain, located around the eastern town of Sierra Morones call, it is a part of the mountains of Zacatecas with a distance of approximately 20 km long that runs from north to south and a width approximately 18 km from east to west with an average elevation of 2460 meters. Highlighting some elevations as the Cerro del Sombreretillo Crescent. At the west side of the population, are the mountains with elevations of Atolinga average msnm 2290.
Integrating Model-Hydraulic Spatially Distributed Hydrological using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) whereas the mainstream and major tributaries.
• Characterize and Physiographically geomorphologically the study area.
• Know conduct hydrological basin contribution.
• Develop coverage and type of land use for the study area, considering the information on urban development plans.
• Obtain and prepare the digital elevation model (DEM) for the study area.
• Create isoyetas for different periods of time and return, covering the area of study.
• Analyze rainfall and make adjustments.
• Research and consulting hydrometric records to the mainstream of the basin study.
• Review hydraulically Xaloc River in the study area.
• Analyze the results and verify the integration of hydrologic analysis methodology-hydraulic spatially distributed.
• Identify areas that could be inundated by flood threat.
• Assess the impact of the flood threat and its features.
• Integrate GIS layers of information in thematic maps on the information gathered.
• Provide information necessary to raise and to propose measures in prevention and preparedness.
The hydrological model spatially distributed hydraulic-assist the quantification of the runoff can estimate the potential impact on the people at the margins of the river and thus Xaloc propose prevention and mitigation.
1. Watershed Delineation and integration of databases.
2. Computational Modeling Hydrologic Basin.
3. Identification of areas of flood channels.
4. Integration of a Geographic Information System.
CONCEPT OF HYDROLOGICAL MODEL
One model is a representation of reality, which can be manipulated to enhance the vision of this. The models are now one of the most valuable tools available to the technicians when they have to deal with the complexity of the real world, as in the case of water systems. Can be very simple or extremely sophisticated depending on the complexity of the problem and the required degree of accuracy in results. The main purpose of the analysis is a model of a complex system at a lower cost (Martinez, 2004).
A good model should maintain a balance, so that it is sufficiently simple to understand and use, and sufficiently complex to properly represent the system modeling
According (Trivino, 2004) hydrologic models are those that can focus on one, several or all the sequences that make up the water cycle and these can be classified into physical and abstract. In turn the abstract models according to the randomness of the variables used may be deterministic or stochastic.
Buras (2001) defines a hydrological model as a dynamic support system that represents only a small fragment of reality, flexible enough to be able to interact with it, test and evaluate factors not included in the model.
Martinez (1999) made the following classification of hydrological models:
1. Reduced physical models. They are based on the reduction to a certain scale prototype (reality). His theoretical analysis is completed with the dimensional theory of similarity.
2. Analog models. Analyzed from a system governed by other similar theories.
3. Mathematical models. Represent the system by a set of logical equations and sentences that express the relationship between variables and parameters. These in turn can be classified into two main groups:
3.1 deterministic: variables are determined by physical laws considered to be accurate and explaining all their variability.
3.2 stochastic variables are governed in whole or in part by the laws of chance and therefore characterized in terms of probability. Require the existence of data to characterize these variables.
Any model that seeks to simulate a distributed hydrological event should address three key issues:
Distribution of gross rainfall in the basin.Ř
Generating effective rainfall at each point from the rain and the gross features of the basinŘ
Translating rain of each cell to exit the basin, to generate the event hydrographŘ